Past problems

Test problems from past UKLO competitions

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Explanation

Below you will find a list of all the test problems that have been used in UK Olympiads since 2010. Each problem includes a link to the downloadable problem.  (To see the link, move the bar beneath the table to the right.)

Each problem is listed with the following information in columns (revealed by scrolling the bar beneath the table):

  • diff: its relative difficulty, as explained below
    • (Note: for problems set in 2010 and 2011 we have to rely on an informal grading in the two books of problems. This five-point grading is partly based on test scores in the American competition and partly estimated by test-setters; unfortunately there are no problems graded by both systems, so they are hard to match. The Japanese problem from 2011 isn’t included in these books so its grading is just a guess.)
  • year: the year in which it was used in UKLO
  • number, name: its number in that year’s problem set, and its name
  • language: the language(s) from which its data are taken
  • ‘area’: what area of linguistics does it involve – script, number-systems, change, morphology, etc. The classification is regrettably crude and inconsistent, but it is indicative.
  • download: a hyperlink to the URL of a file containing the problem concerned, together with any extra material.
  • author: the name of the person or people who wrote the problem.

The problems

The problems are listed in the table below. Note that:

  • all the problems are stored on the UKLO website, and you can download them by clicking in the ‘download’ column (which may be hiding on the right – just slide the bar at the foot of the table).
  • the table is divided into a number of pages which you can step through by pressing the button on the bottom right, but you can also choose how many rows to display in each page, for a number between 10 and 100.
  • in spite of this division into pages, you can reorder the rows by clicking on the column headers; e.g. instead of the default ordering by year you can order by difficulty, starting either with the easiest or the hardest.
  • there’s a useful search box in the top right of the table, so (for instance) you can search for all the problems based on English by typing “English” into that box.
  • to see all the columns, you need to scroll horizontally using the bar at the foot of the table. The columns on the right include ‘download’ and ‘author’. Depending on your browser, you may find that the number of visible columns depends on the number of rows displayed, but you may be able to view more columns by refreshing your page.
  • each problem includes its solution, but most of them also have some kind of commentary. Those that have NO commentary are marked with *.

 

The table of problems

[Table displayed with Tablepress – highly recommended!]
diffyearnumber, namelanguageareadownloadauthor   
12010*1. Sorry we have no red cucumbersFrenchsyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/french.pdfDragomir Radev
120102. Gelda’s House of GelbergargEnglishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/eng-restaurant.pdfCindy Schneider
12010*3. Say it in AbmaAbmageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/abma.pdfLuda Kedova & Rachel Nordlinger
12010*R2.3. F u cn rd thsEnglishcomputinghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/eng-abbreviations.pdfRichard Sproat
22010*R2.1. Ardhay UzzlepayMinangkabaugeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/minangkabau.pdfJohn Henderson
32010*4. Lost in YerevanArmenianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/armenian.pdfDragomir Radev
32010*7. Texting, texting, one two threeEnglishcodehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/eng-texting.pdfPatrick Littell
32010*R2.2. Be Cree-ativeCreescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/cree.pdfPatrick Littell & Julia Workman
32010*6. Tangkhul tangleTangkhulgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/tangkhul.pdfDavid Mortensen
32010*R2.4. Tale of KieuVietnamesescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/r2-answers-full.docDavid Mortensen
32010*R2.5. Possessed in VanuatuVanuatugeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/example-questions/oldsite/test%20material/2010/vanuatu.docJane Simpson & Jeremy Hammond
52010*5. Turkish delightTurkishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/turkish.pdfBozhidar Bozhanov
0.520112. JapaneasyJapanesescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Japanese1.docHarold Somers
22011*7. The war of the dotsEnglish (braille)scripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/7-English-braille.docPatrick Littell
22011*R2.1. Stopping and flapping in WarlpiriWarlpirigeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Warlpiri.docMary Laughren
22011R2.2. Counting in IrishIrishnumberhttps://www.uklo.org/irishTom Payne
22011*1. Running on MTEnglishmeaninghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-English1.docHarold Somers
220113. Doubling in Caterpillar CountryArrerntegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-Arrernte.docMark Dras & Mary Laughren
22011*5. Mix up on the farmPapagogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-Papago.docLori Levin (data from Ken Hale)
22011*6. Tiger taleIndonesiangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/6-Indonesian.docDragomir Radev
320114. Ulwa possessivesUlwageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-Ulwa.docRichard Sproat
42011*R2.5. Swallow the saltTadaksahakgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-Tadaksahak.docBozhidar Bozhanov
52011*R2.3. Axolotl in the waterNahuatlgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-Nahuatl.docJohn Berman
52011*R2.3. A script for the NdyukaNdyukascripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-Afaka.docPatrick Littell
0.8920121. Being with it in YolmoYolmogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Lauren Gawne
0.9220122. Danish numbersDanishnumbershttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Mike Swan
1.172012*6. Crocodile BardiBardigeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Catherine Sheard
1.3620123w. Welsh librariesWelshgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Dick Hudson
1.592012*8. Arcturan intergalactic peace messagefictitious languagegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Simon Zwarts
1.692012*7. Waorani numbersWaoraninumbershttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Drago Radev
1.722012*R2.2. Who is good?Luiseñogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Ronald Langacker (via Dick Hudson)
1.7620124. HaitianHaitiangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Ivaylo Youmerski
1.932012*5. EsperantoEsperantogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Alexey Pegushev
2.222012*R2.1. A fox among the hEnglishcomputinghttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Patrick Littell
2.352012*R2.3. The little engine that could… readEnglishlogichttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012James Pustejovsky, Patrick Littell
2.42012*9. WaanyiWaanyigeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Mary Laughren
3.062012R2.5. Catalan pluralsCatalanmorphophonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Boris Iomdin
3.3920123d. Dutch past participlesDutchgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Babette Newsome
33.332012*R2.4. 100 surnamesPhags-pascripthttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012Patrick Littell
1.22013*8. A little Dutch problemDutchgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-Dutch-diminutives.pdfHarold Somers
1.442013*5. BulgarianBulgariansyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Bulgarian-syntax.pdfBozhidar Bozhanov
1.562013*1. YodaspeakEnglishsyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Yoda-syntax.pdfHarold Somers
1.7920136. The long and short of English verbsEnglishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3+-English-verb-reduction.pdfDick Hudson
2.122013*3. PaliPaligeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Pali-morphosyntax.pdfBabette Newsome
3.2920139. BengaliBengaligeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4+-Bengali-morphosyntax.pdfBozhidar Bozhanov
3.4920134a. Arabic scriptArabicscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2+-Arabic-script.pdfDavid Palfreyman
5.632013*R2.4. Stockholms TunnelbanaSwedishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-r2.4-Swedish-morphology.pdfPatrick Littell
5.742013*R2.1. Deer FatherQuechuageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-r2.1-Quechua-morphosyntax.pdfPatrick Littell
6.0620134s. The Shavian AlphabetEnglish – Shavianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4+-Shavian-script.pdfBabette Newsome
8.722013*7. PhoenicianPhoenicianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-Phoenician-script.pdfHarold Somers
9.992013*R2.5. Playing the cognate gameIndonesian, Swahilietymologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-r2.5-Indonesian-and-Swahili-etymology.pdfCatherine Sheard
12.672013*R2.3. BejaBejageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-r2.3-Beja-morphosyntax.pdfDick Hudson
32.942013*R2.2. Putting the books in orderGeorgian, Armenianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-r2.2-Georgian-and-Armenian-script.pdfDrago Radev
0.5420143. MokileseMokilesegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Mokilese.pdfJeff Siegel
0.6720141. What time is it in Tallinn?Estoniangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.1-Estonian.pdfBabette Newsome
1.0820142. Maori loanwordsMaorigeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.2-Maori.pdfPat Littell
1.2620146. Kairak verbsKairakgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.6-Kairak.pdfCindy Schneider
1.3820144. Running speechEnglishphonetics, scripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.4-ipa.pdfSue Barry & Dick Hudson
2.9920145. TurkishTurkishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.5-Turkish.pdfDavid Palfreyman
3.2420147. IlokanoIlokanogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.7-Ilocano.pdfBozhidar Bozhanov
3.9820149. LontaraBuginesescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.9-Lontara.pdfChelsea Voss
4.612014*R2.1. Kiswahili verbsKiswahiligeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.1-Kiswahili.pdfCatherine
6.482014*R2.2. Untangling TanghulicKachai, Tusom, Ukhrulcomparisonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.2-Tanghulic.pdfDavid Mortensen
6.682014*R2.4. Navajo gophersNavajogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.4-Navajo.pdfBabette Newsome
8.112014*R2.3. Learning YidinyYidinygeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.3-Yidiny.pdfMary Laughren
9.012014*R2.5. Hungarians in a fieldHungarianpuzzlehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.5-Hungarian.pdfAdam Hesterberg
16.9920148. Musical codeEnglishcodehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.8-music.pdfHarold Somers
1.062015*1. Counting in KarelianKareliannumbershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Karelian-P-S.pdfGraeme Trousdale
1.262015*2. Georgian placesGeorgianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2.-Georgian-P-S.pdfDaniel Rucki
1.322015*3. Polish your PolishPolishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3.-Polish-P-S.pdfDaniel Rucki
1.512015*4. Old EnglishEnglishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4.-Old-English-P-S.pdfGraeme Trousdale
1.592015*5. Elder FutharkNorsescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5.-Runes-P-S.pdfCatherine Sheard
1.762015*8. Can you finish Finnish?Finnishgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/8-Finnish.pdfBabette Newsome
2.132015*7. MurrinhpathaMurrinhpathageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/7-Murrinhpatha-P-S.docxRachel Nordlinger
2.462015R2.3 Do-this-do-thatHmonggeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-Hmong-.pdfDavid Mortensen
2.562015*9. Zoink!Englishsemanticshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/9-English.pdfDragomir Radev with Christiane Fellbaum and Jonathan May
2.742015*6. Japanese placesJapanesegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/6-Japanese-P-S.pdfHarold Somers
3.632015R2.2 Malagasy crossnumberMalagasynumbershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Malagasy-.pdfTom McCoy
6.52015*R2.4 AymaraAymaraphonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/4-Aymara-1-1.pdfJosh Falk
8.5820155 RomanceLatin, French, Catalan, Romanianhistorical comparisonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/5-Romance-1.pdfDavid Palfreyman
9.432015*R2.1 MaxakaliMaxakaligeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Maxakali-.pdfAlex Wade
9.48201510. Georgian EraGeorgianscript, generalhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/10-Georgian.pdfDorottya Demszky
0.920162. ForeignFrench, German, Spanishcomparativehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/2-Foreign-PS.pdfDick Hudson
0.920164. Beijing subwayChinesescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/4.-Beijing-PS.pdfCatherine Sheard
120161. AlphabetGreekscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/1.-Alphabet-PS.pdfDick Hudson
1.320169. NhandaNhandageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/9.-Nhanda-PS.pdfBabette Verhoeven
1.320168. SomaliSomalimorphologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/8.-Somali-PS.pdfHarold Somers
1.420166. KaqchikelKaqchikelgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/6.-Kaqchikel-PS.pdfMichael Yoshitaka Erlewine
1.420163. WatsoniumIrishspelling of loanshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/3.-Watsonium-PS.pdfJane D’Altuin and Harold Somers
1.420165. AmeleAmelegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/5-Amele-PS.pdfBabette Verhoeven
1.52016R2.1 MalayMalaygeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.1-Malay-PS.pdfBozhidar Bozhanov
1.620167. The strange case of the Estonian languageEstoniangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/7.-Estonian-PS.pdfPraveen Venkataramana
1.82016R2.2. TocharianTocharianhistoricalhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.2-Tocharian-PS.pdfOllie Sayeed
2.12016R2.5. Get edumacated!Englishphonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.5-Edumacated-PS.pdfPatrick Littell
2.2201610. Don't sell the house!Nunggeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/10.-Nung-PS.pdfAlex Wade
2.82016R2.4. DevanagariDevanagariscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.4-Devanagari-PS.pdfLauren Gawne
2.82016R2.3. HuliHulinumbershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.3-Huli-PS.pdfBill Huang
0.92017R1.3. We are all European9 languagescomparativehttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Babette Newsome
1.052017R1.1. Our Italian familyItalianmorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Dick Hudson
1.182017R1.5. Basquing in the sunBasquemorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Aleka Blackwell
1.392017R1.4. A little TshilubaTshilubamorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Tom McCoy
1.422017R1.2. Inuktitut scriptInuktitutscripthttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Ollie Sayeed
1.772017R1.6. Maori for the beachMaorigrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Aleka Blackwell
1.772017R1.8. ChoctawChoctawmorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Babette Newsome
2.652017R1.9. The goat, the mother and the Abkhaz wardrobeAbkhazgrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Samuel Andersson, Oliver Sayeed, and Elysia Warner
2.842017R2.1. NepaliNepaligrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2Babette Newsome
2.882017R2.3. VietVietnamesegrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2James Hyett
3.22017R1.10. Kaytetye kinshipKaytetyesemanticshttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Myfany Turpin
3.322017R2.2. Do you see what I see?Proto-Algonquianmorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2Daniel Lovsted
4.022017R2.4. Muddled hieroglyphsEgyptianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2Dick Hudson
4.232017R1.7. On the right Tamil trackTamilscripthttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1Kai Low
4.352017R2.5. Magic Yup’ikYup'iknumberhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2Kai Low
0.71201818.1 (In)definitely RomanianRomaniangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.1-Romanian-.pdfJulia Barron
0.81201818.2 Lithuanian road tripLithuaniangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.2-Lithuanian-.pdfBabette Newsome
1.19201818.5 At Ease in GilberteseGilbertesegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.5-Gilbertese-.pdfMichael Salter
1.28201818.3 Finding your way in SofiaBulgarianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.3-Bulgarian-.pdfBabette Newsome
1.95201818.6 Are you OK with N’ko?Nkoscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.6-Nko-.pdfBabette Newsome, Harold Somers
1.96201818.4 What's yours is mine (for eating)Fijiangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/18.4-Fijian-.pdfVica Papp
2.7201818.7 Icelandic RelationsIcelandicgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.7-Icelandic-.pdfBabette Newsome
4.64201818.R2.4 It’s true: The truth about Chalcatongo MixtecMixtecgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.R2.4-Mixtec.pdfBabette Newsome
5.07201818.R2.2 NivkhNivkhgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.R2.2-Nivkh.pdfHeather Newell
5.3201818.R2.3 MenyaMenyageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.R2.3-Menya.pdfAleka Blackwell
5.93201818.8 Vietnamese MatchingVietnamesegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.8-Vietnamese.pdfTom McCoy, Pat Littell, and Lori Levin
6.1201818.10 Tirana touristAlbaniangeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.10-Albanian.pdfAli Sharman
15.26201818.9 Central Pamerican sumsPamenumberhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.9-Pame-.pdfMilena Veneva
0.842019P2 JapaneseJapanesescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/2-Japanese-PSC.pdfBabette Newsome
1.022019P3 JahaiJahaimeaninghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/3-Jahai-PSC.pdfBabette Newsome
1.312019P4 WelshWelshmorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/4-Welsh-PSC.pdfBabette Newsome
1.352019P5 PitjantjatjaraPitjantjatjarageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5-Pitjantjatjara-PSC.pdfRebecca Dafina and Wilmoth
1.492019P1 LadinLadingeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/1-Ladin-PSC.pdfJulia Barron
1.822019P7 HarmongolianMongolianmorphophonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/7-Mongolian-I-PSC.pdfEthan Chi
2.042019P9 NdebeleNdebelegeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/9-Ndebele-PSC.pdfMichael Salter
2.642019R2.2 LepchaLepchascripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/2.-Lepcha.pdfEthan Chi
2.942019P10 BrailleEnglishscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/10-Braille-PSC.pdfBabette Newsome
3.012019R2.1 AfrihiliAfrihiligeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/1.-Afrihili-.pdfMichael Salter
3.642019P6 Cippus AbellanusOscanscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/6-Cippus-Abellanus-I-PSC-.pdfMichael Salter
3.982019R2.4 CupenoCupenogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/4.-Cupeno.pdfDaniel Lovsted
4.682019R2.5 Witsuwit'enWitsuwit'engeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5.-Witsuwiten.pdfDaniel Lovsted, Sam Ahmed, Ellie Warner
4.852019R2.3 PolishPolishmorphophonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/3.-Polish-nouns.pdfMs Veneva
17.582019P8 GumatjGumatjnumbershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/8-Gumatj-PSC-.pdfEthan Chi
0.9220201.02 Curious cuneiformBabylonianscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/2.-Cuneiform-PSE.pdfMartin Worthington
1.0120201.05 Hello Mongo!Lomongomorphophonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/5.-Mongo-PSE.pdfKevin Liang
1.0620201.03 Norwedish?Norwegian, Swedishcomparativehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/3.-Norwedish-PSE.pdfBabette
1.1320201.01 DutchDutchmorphophonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/1.-Dutch-PSE.pdfLiam McKnight
1.820201.09 Can Yukaghir?Kolyma Yukaghirgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/9.-yukhagir-PSE.pdfKobayashi Tsuyoshi
1.8520201.04 The long and short of LigurianLigurianphonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/4.-Ligurian-PSE.pdfKevin Liang
2.1720201.08 Stressed out in the CaribbeanPapiamentuphonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/5.-Mongo-PSE.pdfHarold Sommers
2.4420201.07 A Cat in a HatChintanggeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/7.-chintang-I-PSE.pdfAleka Blackwell
320202.1 Taiwan PaiwanPaiwansyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/1-Paiwan.pdfSam Ahmed
3.0120202.4 Imitating UteUtesyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/4-Ute.pdfLiam McKnight
3.4520202.5 Arapaho morphologyArapahomorphologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/5-Arapaho.pdfDaniel Lovsted
3.5220202.2 Yoruba numbersYorubacounting systemhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/5-Arapaho.pdfHarold Somers
3.8120202.3 A toad's miaoMiaoscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/3-Miao.pdfEthan Chi
4.320201.10 IñapariIñaparigeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/10.-inapari-PSE.pdfSam Ahmed
7.3420201.06 Idalion tabletGreekscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/6.-idalion-I-PSE.pdfMichael Salter
0.8920211. OghamGaelicscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Breakthrough-21.zipBabette Verhoeven
0.9120213. WaamaWaamageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Breakthrough-21.zipAleka Blackwell
0.9720212. KabyleKabylemorphosyntaxhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Breakthrough-21.zipKazune Sato, Simi Hellsten
1.522021A2. Old ChineseOld Chinesephonological changehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zipEthan Chi
1.720214. Ditema tsa DinokoDitemascripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Foundation-21.zipMichael Salter
1.9620217. LatvianLatvianwhole-text translationhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Intermediate-21.zipAleka Blackwell
2.1920215. FilipinoFilipinosyntax, pragmaticshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Foundation-21.zipBabette Verhoeven
2.3320216. LongguLonggusemanticshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Intermediate-21.zipBabette Verhoeven
2.832021A3. NgkolmpuNgkolmpunumbershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zipSimi Hellsten
3.072021A1. MandombeMandombescripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zipRyan Chi
3.222021A5. DagaareDagaaremorphologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zipEthan Chi
3.412021A4. SaukSaukgeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zipRyan Chi
23.992021R2.4. HmongHmongsemanticshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zipSimi Hellsten
7.512021R2.1. KakawinKakawingeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zipMichael Salter
11.292021R2.5. TawalaTawalageneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zipSimi Hellsten
7.212021R2.3. AinuAinugeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zipVlad Neacsu
3.162021R2.2. Hawu and DhaoHawu & Dhaogeneralhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zipEvan Hochstein
0.762022#1Swedishgrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/1_UKLO-2022-Swedish_The-Pink-Pig-is-Pink_-Complete-Script-.pdfDavid Hellsten
0.812022#2Buhidscripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/2_UKLO-2022-Buhid_Buhid-Script_Complete-Script.pdfBabette Verhoeven
0.712022#3Italiangrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/3_UKLO-2022-Italian_Definitely-Italian_Complete-Script-.pdfJulia Barron
0.842022#4Maltesegrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/4_UKLO-2022-Maltese_A-Dogs-Breakfast_-Complete-Script-.pdfMichael Salter
1.322022#5Arhuacosemanticshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/5_UKLO-2022-Arhuaco_Arhuaco-things-places_-Complete-Script-.pdfBabette Verhoeven
1.932022#6Bislamascripthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/6_Intermediate_UKLO-2022-Bislama_Back-And-Forth-In-Bislama_-Complete-Script-.pdfMichael Salter
3.862022#7Korowai and Haruainumbershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/7_Intermediate_UKLO-2022-Korowai-and-Haruai__Complete-Script.pdfSimi Hellsten
1.72022#8Zunigrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/8_Adv_UKLO-2022-Zuni_Zuni-Tunes__Complete-Script.pdfMichael Salter
3.172022#9Tseltalsemantics/ grammarhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/9_Adv_UKLO-2022-Tseltal__Complete-Script.pdfSimi Hellsten
2.72022#10Mazatecogrammar / toneshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/10_Adv_UKLO-2022-Mazateco_You-Know-How-To-Whistle-Dont-You_Complete-Script.pdfMichael Salter
3.922022R2.1Mapudungunphonologyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/2022_-R2_Mapudungun-PSC.docxJunnosuke Kajita, Kazune Sato (Japan 21)
7.172022R2.2Wik-Mungkancompoundshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/2022_-R2_Wik-Mungkan-PSC.docxRyan Chi
4.502022R2.3Niueangrammarhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/2022_-R2_Niuean-PSC.docxSimi Hellsten
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Relative difficulty

The problems are classified for difficulty. Here’s how this was calculated:

  • For problems from 2012 and later, the grading is objective and reflects the average marks of hundreds of competitors. Informally, the difficulty is the difference between the maximum possible mark and the average mark; so if everyone scores 100%, the difficulty is 1, but if the average is just 10%, the difficulty is 10. But as you’ll see below, it has to be more complicated than that!
    • Mathematically, the difficulty (diff) of a problem is the maximum score for that problem divided by the average score;
      • e.g. if the maximum was 20 and the average was 10, diff would be 2.0.
      • If everyone achieved the maximum, diff would be 1.0.
      • If the average was very low, say 1/20, diff would be 20.
    • However, difficulty depends not only on the problem but also on the competitor, so a problem which would be very hard for a Foundation competitor might be quite easy for an Advanced one. The figure for diff is therefore standardised for a typical Advanced competitor:
      • Where a problem was part of the Advanced competition in Round 1, diff is calculated as above.
      • Problems which were only included at lower levels (Breakthrough, Foundation or Intermediate) had their diff reduced by a figure based on the problems which were taken both at these levels and at higher levels, including Advance levels.
        • E.g. if an I-level problem’s average score was 5/10, giving an I-level diff of 10/5 = 2,
        • and the same competitors scored half (0.5) as well as the Advanced competitors did on the problems that they both did, giving an ‘I-adjustment’ for I and A (the mean I and A scores for those problems) of I/A = 0.5
        • then its diff (for a typical A-level candidate) was 2 x 0.5 = 1.
        • Similarly for lower levels: so the diff of a Breakthrough problem is given by B x F x I where
          • B = the diff for Breakthrough candidates
          • F is the F-adjustment figure (F/I) for problems taken at both F and I level
          • I is the I-adjustment figure (I/A) for problems taken at both I and A level.
        • This standardization calculation explains why some diff figures are below 1.0 (which would otherwise be the lowest possible).
      • Problems from Round 2 had their diff increased by a figure based on the difference between the Round 1 figures for the winners (who eventually took Round 2) and the overall average.
        • E.g. if the R2 diff for a problem was 2,
        • and the R1 Advanced winners’ average score was twice the average for all Advanced competitors,
        • then its diff for a typical A-level candidate was 2 x 2 = 4.