Past problems

Test problems from past UKLO competitions

=============================================

Explanation

Below you will find a list of all the test problems that have been used in UK Olympiads since 2010. Each problem includes a link to the downloadable problem.  (To see the link, move the bar beneath the table to the right.)

Each problem is listed with the following information in columns (revealed by scrolling the bar beneath the table):

  • diff: its relative difficulty, as explained below
    • (Note: for problems set in 2010 and 2011 we have to rely on an informal grading in the two books of problems. This five-point grading is partly based on test scores in the American competition and partly estimated by test-setters; unfortunately there are no problems graded by both systems, so they are hard to match. The Japanese problem from 2011 isn’t included in these books so its grading is just a guess.)
  • year: the year in which it was used in UKLO
  • number, name: its number in that year’s problem set, and its name
  • language: the language(s) from which its data are taken
  • ‘area’: what area of linguistics does it involve – script, number-systems, change, morphology, etc. The classification is regrettably crude and inconsistent, but it is indicative. ‘Rosetta’ is a problem in which translations in two languages are presented side by side, as on the Rosetta stone.
  • extras?: any information beyond the problem and its solution.
    • expanded: an extended essay-length discussion of the problem and how to solve it, as well as ideas for building on it in discussing more general ideas about language and linguistic analysis.
    • notes: brief notes on the problem data, possibly as a separate file from the problem file.
    • problem, solution, commentary and marking scheme: a single file containing all relevant information.
  • author: the name of the person who wrote the problem – not easy!
  • link: a hyperlink to the URL of a file containing the problem concerned, together with any extra material.

The problems

The problems are listed below in increasing order of difficulty. Note that:

  • the table is divided into a number of pages which you can step through by pressing the button on the bottom right, but you can also choose how many rows to display in each page.
  • in spite of this division into pages, you can reorder the rows by clicking on the column headers; e.g. instead of the default ordering by difficulty you can order by year, starting either with the oldest or the youngest.
  • there’s a useful search box in the top right of the table, so (for instance) you can search for all the problems based on English by typing “English” into that box.
  • to see all the columns you need to scroll horizontally using the bar at the foot of the table.

The problems are also listed in a downloadable spreadsheet which you can edit in Excel like any other spreadsheet.

The table of problems

[Table displayed with Tablepress – highly recommended!]
diffyearnumber, namelanguageareaextras?author 
120101. Sorry we have no red cucumbersFrenchsyntaxDragomir Radevhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/french.pdf
120102. Gelda’s House of GelbergargEnglishgeneralCindy Schneiderhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/eng-restaurant.pdf
120103. Say it in AbmaAbmageneralLuda Kedova & Rachel Nordlingerhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/abma.pdf
12010R2.3. F u cn rd thsEnglishcomputingRichard Sproathttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/eng-abbreviations.pdf
22010R2.1. Ardhay UzzlepayMinangkabaugeneralJohn Hendersonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/minangkabau.pdf
320104. Lost in YerevanArmenianscriptDragomir Radevhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/armenian.pdf
320107. Texting, texting, one two threeEnglishcodePatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/eng-texting.pdf
32010R2.2. Be Cree-ativeCreescriptPatrick Littell & Julia Workmanhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/cree.pdf
320106. Tangkhul tangleTangkhulgeneralDavid Mortensenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/tangkhul.pdf
32010R2.4. Tale of KieuVietnamesescriptDavid Mortensenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/r2-answers-full.doc
32010R2.5. Possessed in VanuatuVanuatugeneralJane Simpson & Jeremy Hammondhttps://www.uklo.org/example-questions/oldsite/test%20material/2010/vanuatu.doc
520105. Turkish delightTurkishgeneralBozhidar Bozhanovhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/turkish.pdf
0.520112. JapaneasyJapanesescriptexpandedHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Japanese1.doc
220117. The war of the dotsEnglish (braille)scriptPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/7-English-braille.doc
22011R2.1. Stopping and flapping in WarlpiriWarlpirigeneralMary Laughrenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Warlpiri.doc
22011R2.2. Counting in IrishIrishnumbernotesTom Paynehttps://www.uklo.org/irish
220111. Running on MTEnglishmeaningHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-English1.doc
220113. Doubling in Caterpillar CountryArrerntegeneralnotesMark Dras & Mary Laughrenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-Arrernte.doc
220115. Mix up on the farmPapagogeneralLori Levin (data from Ken Hale)https://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-Papago.doc
220116. Tiger taleIndonesiangeneralDragomir Radevhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/6-Indonesian.doc
320114. Ulwa possessivesUlwageneralnotesRichard Sproathttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-Ulwa.doc
42011R2.5. Swallow the saltTadaksahakgeneralBozhidar Bozhanovhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-Tadaksahak.doc
52011R2.3. Axolotl in the waterNahuatlgeneralJohn Bermanhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-Nahuatl.doc
52011R2.3. A script for the NdyukaNdyukascriptPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-Afaka.doc
0.8920121. Being with it in YolmoYolmogeneralexpandedLauren Gawnehttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
0.9220122. Danish numbersDanishnumbersexpandedMike Swanhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.1720126. Crocodile BardiBardigeneralCatherine Sheardhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.3620123w. Welsh librariesWelshgeneralnotesDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.5920128. Arcturan intergalactic peace messagefictitious languagegeneralSimon Zwartshttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.6920127. Waorani numbersWaoraninumbersDrago Radevhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.722012R2.2. Who is good?LuiseñogeneralRonald Langacker (via Dick Hudson)https://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.7620124. HaitianHaitiangeneral notesIvaylo Youmerskihttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.9320125. EsperantoEsperantogeneralAlexey Pegushevhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
2.222012R2.1. A fox among the hEnglishcomputingPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
2.352012R2.3. The little engine that could… readEnglishlogicJames Pustejovsky, Patrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
2.420129. WaanyiWaanyigeneralMary Laughrenhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
3.062012R2.5. Catalan pluralsCatalanmorphophonologyBoris Iomdinhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
3.3920123d. Dutch past participlesDutchgeneralnotesBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
33.332012R2.4. 100 surnamesPhags-pascriptPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/test-papers-2012
1.220138. A little Dutch problemDutchgeneralHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-Dutch-diminutives.pdf
1.4420135. BulgarianBulgariansyntaxBozhidar Bozhanovhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Bulgarian-syntax.pdf
1.5620131. YodaspeakEnglishsyntaxHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Yoda-syntax.pdf
1.7920136. The long and short of English verbsEnglishgeneralnotesDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3+-English-verb-reduction.pdf
2.1220133. PaliPaligeneralBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Pali-morphosyntax.pdf
3.2920139. BengaliBengaligeneralnotesBozhidar Bozhanovhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4+-Bengali-morphosyntax.pdf
3.4920134a. Arabic scriptArabicscriptnotesDavid Palfreymanhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2+-Arabic-script.pdf
5.632013R2.4. Stockholms TunnelbanaSwedishgeneralPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-r2.4-Swedish-morphology.pdf
5.742013R2.1. Deer FatherQuechuageneralPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-r2.1-Quechua-morphosyntax.pdf
6.0620134s. The Shavian AlphabetEnglish – ShavianscriptnotesBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4+-Shavian-script.pdf
8.7220137. PhoenicianPhoenicianscriptHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-Phoenician-script.pdf
9.992013R2.5. Playing the cognate gameIndonesian, SwahilietymologyCatherine Sheardhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-r2.5-Indonesian-and-Swahili-etymology.pdf
12.672013R2.3. BejaBejageneralDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4-r2.3-Beja-morphosyntax.pdf
32.942013R2.2. Putting the books in orderGeorgian, ArmenianscriptDrago Radevhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5-r2.2-Georgian-and-Armenian-script.pdf
0.5420143. MokileseMokilesegeneralexpandedJeff Siegelhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Mokilese.pdf
0.6720141. What time is it in Tallinn?EstoniangeneralexpandedBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.1-Estonian.pdf
1.0820142. Maori loanwordsMaorigeneralnotesPat Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.2-Maori.pdf
1.2620146. Kairak verbsKairakgeneralnotesCindy Schneiderhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.6-Kairak.pdf
1.3820144. Running speechEnglishphonetics, scriptnotesSue Barry & Dick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.4-ipa.pdf
2.9920145. TurkishTurkishgeneralnotesDavid Palfreymanhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.5-Turkish.pdf
3.2420147. IlokanoIlokanogeneralnotesBozhidar Bozhanovhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.7-Ilocano.pdf
3.9820149. LontaraBuginesescriptnotesChelsea Vosshttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.9-Lontara.pdf
4.612014R2.1. Kiswahili verbsKiswahiligeneralCatherinehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.1-Kiswahili.pdf
6.482014R2.2. Untangling TanghulicKachai, Tusom, UkhrulcomparisonDavid Mortensenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.2-Tanghulic.pdf
6.682014R2.4. Navajo gophersNavajogeneralBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.4-Navajo.pdf
8.112014R2.3. Learning YidinyYidinygeneralMary Laughrenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.3-Yidiny.pdf
9.012014R2.5. Hungarians in a fieldHungarianpuzzleAdam Hesterberghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014r2.5-Hungarian.pdf
16.9920148. Musical codeEnglishcodenotesHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2014.8-music.pdf
1.0620151. Counting in KarelianKareliannumbersGraeme Trousdalehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Karelian-P-S.pdf
1.2620152. Georgian placesGeorgianscriptDaniel Ruckihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2.-Georgian-P-S.pdf
1.3220153. Polish your PolishPolishgeneralDaniel Ruckihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3.-Polish-P-S.pdf
1.5120154. Old EnglishEnglishgeneralGraeme Trousdalehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/4.-Old-English-P-S.pdf
1.5920155. Elder FutharkNorsescriptCatherine Sheardhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/5.-Runes-P-S.pdf
1.7620158. Can you finish Finnish?FinnishgeneralBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/8-Finnish.pdf
2.1320157. MurrinhpathaMurrinhpathageneralRachel Nordlingerhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/7-Murrinhpatha-P-S.docx
2.462015R2.3 Do-this-do-thatHmonggeneral notesDavid Mortensenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/3-Hmong-.pdf
2.5620159. Zoink!EnglishsemanticsDragomir Radev with Christiane Fellbaum and Jonathan Mayhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/9-English.pdf
2.7420156. Japanese placesJapanesegeneralHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/6-Japanese-P-S.pdf
3.632015R2.2 Malagasy crossnumberMalagasynumbers notesTom McCoyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/2-Malagasy-.pdf
6.52015R2.4 AymaraAymaraphonologyJosh Falkhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/4-Aymara-1-1.pdf
8.5820155 RomanceLatin, French, Catalan, Romanianhistorical comparisonDavid Palfreymanhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/5-Romance-1.pdf
9.432015R2.1 MaxakaliMaxakaligeneralAlex Wadehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/1-Maxakali-.pdf
9.48201510. Georgian EraGeorgianscript, generalDorottya Demszkyhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/10-Georgian.pdf
0.920162. ForeignFrench, German, Spanishcomparativeproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/2-Foreign-PS.pdf
0.920164. Beijing subwayChinesescriptproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeCatherine Sheardhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/4.-Beijing-PS.pdf
1.020161. AlphabetGreekscriptproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/1.-Alphabet-PS.pdf
1.320169. NhandaNhandageneralproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeBabette Verhoevenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/9.-Nhanda-PS.pdf
1.320168. SomaliSomalimorphologyproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/8.-Somali-PS.pdf
1.420166. KaqchikelKaqchikelgeneralproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeMichael Yoshitaka Erlewinehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/6.-Kaqchikel-PS.pdf
1.420163. WatsoniumIrishspelling of loansproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeJane D’Altuin and Harold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/3.-Watsonium-PS.pdf
1.420165. AmeleAmelegeneralproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeBabette Verhoevenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/5-Amele-PS.pdf
1.52016R2.1 MalayMalaygeneralProblem, solution and markingBozhidar Bozhanovhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.1-Malay-PS.pdf
1.620167. The strange case of the Estonian languageEstoniangeneralproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemePraveen Venkataramanahttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/7.-Estonian-PS.pdf
1.82016R2.2. TocharianTocharianhistoricalProblem, solution and markingOllie Sayeedhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.2-Tocharian-PS.pdf
2.12016R2.5. Get edumacated!EnglishphonologyProblem, solution and markingPatrick Littellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.5-Edumacated-PS.pdf
2.2201610. Don't sell the house!Nunggeneralproblem, solution, commentary and marking schemeAlex Wadehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/10.-Nung-PS.pdf
2.82016R2.4. DevanagariDevanagariscriptProblem, solution and markingLauren Gawnehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.4-Devanagari-PS.pdf
2.82016R2.3. HuliHulinumbersProblem, solution and markingBill Huanghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/R2.3-Huli-PS.pdf
0.92017R1.3. We are all European9 languagescomparativenotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
1.052017R1.1. Our Italian familyItalianmorphosyntaxnotes and solutionDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
1.182017R1.5. Basquing in the sunBasquemorphosyntaxnotes and solutionAleka Blackwellhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
1.392017R1.4. A little TshilubaTshilubamorphosyntaxnotes and solutionTom McCoyhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
1.422017R1.2. Inuktitut scriptInuktitutscriptnotes and solutionOllie Sayeedhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
1.772017R1.6. Maori for the beachMaorigrammarnotes and solutionAleka Blackwellhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
1.772017R1.8. ChoctawChoctawmorphosyntaxnotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
2.652017R1.9. The goat, the mother and the Abkhaz wardrobeAbkhazgrammarnotes and solutionSamuel Andersson, Oliver Sayeed, and Elysia Warnerhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
2.842017R2.1. NepaliNepaligrammarnotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2
2.882017R2.3. VietVietnamesegrammarnotes and solutionJames Hyetthttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2
3.22017R1.10. Kaytetye kinshipKaytetyesemanticsnotes and solutionMyfany Turpinhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
3.322017R2.2. Do you see what I see?Proto-Algonquianmorphosyntaxnotes and solutionDaniel Lovstedhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2
4.022017R2.4. Muddled hieroglyphsEgyptianscriptnotes and solutionDick Hudsonhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2
4.232017R1.7. On the right Tamil trackTamilscriptnotes and solutionKai Lowhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r1
4.352017R2.5. Magic Yup’ikYup'iknumbernotes and solutionKai Lowhttps://www.uklo.org/problems-2017#r2
0.71201818.1 (In)definitely RomanianRomaniangeneralnotes and solutionJulia Barronhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.1-Romanian-.pdf
0.81201818.2 Lithuanian road tripLithuaniangeneralnotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.2-Lithuanian-.pdf
1.19201818.5 At Ease in GilberteseGilbertesegeneralnotes and solutionMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.5-Gilbertese-.pdf
1.28201818.3 Finding your way in SofiaBulgarianscriptnotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.3-Bulgarian-.pdf
1.95201818.6 Are you OK with N’ko?Nkoscriptnotes and solutionBabette Newsome, Harold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.6-Nko-.pdf
1.96201818.4 What's yours is mine (for eating)Fijiangeneralnotes and solutionVica Papphttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/18.4-Fijian-.pdf
2.7201818.7 Icelandic RelationsIcelandicgeneralnotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.7-Icelandic-.pdf
4.64201818.R2.4 It’s true: The truth about Chalcatongo MixtecMixtecgeneralnotes and solutionBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.R2.4-Mixtec.pdf
5.07201818.R2.2 NivkhNivkhgeneralnotes and solutionHeather Newellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.R2.2-Nivkh.pdf
5.3201818.R2.3 MenyaMenyageneralsolutionAleka Blackwellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.R2.3-Menya.pdf
5.93201818.8 Vietnamese MatchingVietnamesegeneralnotes and solutionTom McCoy, Pat Littell, and Lori Levinhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.8-Vietnamese.pdf
6.1201818.10 Tirana touristAlbaniangeneralnotes and solutionAli Sharmanhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.10-Albanian.pdf
15.26201818.9 Central Pamerican sumsPamenumbernotes and solutionMilena Venevahttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/18.9-Pame-.pdf
0.842019P2 JapaneseJapanesescriptnotesBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/2-Japanese-PSC.pdf
1.022019P3 JahaiJahaimeaningnotesBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/3-Jahai-PSC.pdf
1.312019P4 WelshWelshmorphosyntaxnotesBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/4-Welsh-PSC.pdf
1.352019P5 PitjantjatjaraPitjantjatjarageneralnotesRebecca Dafina and Wilmothhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5-Pitjantjatjara-PSC.pdf
1.492019P1 LadinLadingeneralnotesJulia Barronhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/1-Ladin-PSC.pdf
1.822019P7 HarmongolianMongolianmorphophonologynotesEthan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/7-Mongolian-I-PSC.pdf
2.042019P9 NdebeleNdebelegeneralnotesMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/9-Ndebele-PSC.pdf
2.642019R2.2 LepchaLepchascriptnotesEthan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/2.-Lepcha.pdf
2.942019P10 BrailleEnglishscriptnotesBabette Newsomehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/10-Braille-PSC.pdf
3.012019R2.1 AfrihiliAfrihiligeneralnotesMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/1.-Afrihili-.pdf
3.642019P6 Cippus AbellanusOscanscriptnotesMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/6-Cippus-Abellanus-I-PSC-.pdf
3.982019R2.4 CupenoCupenogeneralnotesDaniel Lovstedhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/4.-Cupeno.pdf
4.682019R2.5 Witsuwit'enWitsuwit'engeneralnotesDaniel Lovsted, Sam Ahmed, Ellie Warnerhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/5.-Witsuwiten.pdf
4.852019R2.3 PolishPolishmorphophonologynotesMs Venevahttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/3.-Polish-nouns.pdf
17.582019P8 GumatjGumatjnumbersnotesEthan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/8-Gumatj-PSC-.pdf
0.9220201.02 Curious cuneiformBabylonianscripteverythingMartin Worthingtonhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/2.-Cuneiform-PSE.pdf
1.0120201.05 Hello Mongo!LomongomorphophonologyeverythingKevin Lianghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/5.-Mongo-PSE.pdf
1.0620201.03 Norwedish?Norwegian, SwedishcomparativeeverythingBabettehttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/3.-Norwedish-PSE.pdf
1.1320201.01 DutchDutchmorphophonologyeverythingLiam McKnighthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/1.-Dutch-PSE.pdf
1.820201.09 Can Yukaghir?Kolyma YukaghirgeneraleverythingKobayashi Tsuyoshihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/9.-yukhagir-PSE.pdf
1.8520201.04 The long and short of LigurianLigurianphonologyeverythingKevin Lianghttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/4.-Ligurian-PSE.pdf
2.1720201.08 Stressed out in the CaribbeanPapiamentuphonologyeverythingHarold Sommershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/5.-Mongo-PSE.pdf
2.4420201.07 A Cat in a HatChintanggeneraleverythingAleka Blackwellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/7.-chintang-I-PSE.pdf
320202.1 Taiwan PaiwanPaiwansyntaxeverythingSam Ahmedhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/1-Paiwan.pdf
3.0120202.4 Imitating UteUtesyntaxeverythingLiam McKnighthttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/4-Ute.pdf
3.4520202.5 Arapaho morphologyArapahomorphologyeverythingDaniel Lovstedhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/5-Arapaho.pdf
3.5220202.2 Yoruba numbersYorubacounting systemeverythingHarold Somershttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/5-Arapaho.pdf
3.8120202.3 A toad's miaoMiaoscripteverythingEthan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/3-Miao.pdf
4.320201.10 IñapariIñaparigeneraleverythingSam Ahmedhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/10.-inapari-PSE.pdf
7.3420201.06 Idalion tabletGreekscripteverythingMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/6.-idalion-I-PSE.pdf
0.8920211. OghamGaelicscripteverythingBabette Verhoevenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Breakthrough-21.zip
0.9120213. WaamaWaamamatchingeverythingAleka Blackwellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Breakthrough-21.zip
0.9720212. KabyleKabylemorphosyntaxeverythingKazune Sato, Simi Hellstenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Breakthrough-21.zip
1.522021A2. Old ChineseOld Chinesephonological changeeverythingEthan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zip
1.720214. Ditema tsa DinokoDitemascripteverythingMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Foundation-21.zip
1.9620217. LatvianLatvianwhole-text translationeverythingAleka Blackwellhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Intermediate-21.zip
2.1920215. FilipinoFilipinosyntax, pragmaticseverythingBabette Verhoevenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Foundation-21.zip
2.3320216. LongguLonggusemanticseverythingBabette Verhoevenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Intermediate-21.zip
2.832021A3. NgkolmpuNgkolmpunumberseverythingSimi Hellstenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zip
3.072021A1. MandombeMandombescripteverythingRyan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zip
3.222021A5. DagaareDagaaremorphologyeverythingEthan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zip
3.412021A4. SaukSaukmatchingeverythingRyan Chihttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Advanced-21.zip
23.992021R2.4. HmongHmongsemanticseverythingSimi Hellstenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zip
7.512021R2.1. KakawinKakawinpuzzleeverythingMichael Salterhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zip
11.292021R2.5. TawalaTawalaRosettaeverythingSimi Hellstenhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zip
7.212021R2.3. AinuAinuRosettaeverythingVlad Neacsuhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zip
3.162021R2.2. Hawu and DhaoHawu & DhaoRosettaeverythingEvan Hochsteinhttps://www.uklo.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/R2-21-pack.zip

 

Relative difficulty

The problems are classified for difficulty. Here’s how this was calculated:

  • For problems from 2012 and later, the grading is objective and reflects the average marks of hundreds of competitors. Informally, the difficulty is the difference between the maximum possible mark and the average mark; so if everyone scores 100%, the difficulty is 1, but if the average is just 10%, the difficulty is 10. But as you’ll see below, it has to be more complicated than that!
    • Mathematically, the difficulty (diff) of a problem is the maximum score for that problem divided by the average score;
      • e.g. if the maximum was 20 and the average was 10, diff would be 2.0.
      • If everyone achieved the maximum, diff would be 1.0.
      • If the average was very low, say 1/20, diff would be 20.
    • However, difficulty depends not only on the problem but also on the competitor, so a problem which would be very hard for a Foundation competitor might be quite easy for an Advanced one. The figure for diff is therefore standardised for a typical Advanced competitor:
      • Where a problem was part of the Advanced competition in Round 1, diff is calculated as above.
      • Problems which were only included at lower levels (Breakthrough, Foundation or Intermediate) had their diff reduced by a figure based on the problems which were taken both at these levels and at higher levels, including Advance levels.
        • E.g. if an I-level problem’s average score was 5/10, giving an I-level diff of 10/5 = 2,
        • and the same competitors scored half (0.5) as well as the Advanced competitors did on the problems that they both did, giving an ‘I-adjustment’ for I and A (the mean I and A scores for those problems) of I/A = 0.5
        • then its diff (for a typical A-level candidate) was 2 x 0.5 = 1.
        • Similarly for lower levels: so the diff of a Breakthrough problem is given by B x F x I where
          • B = the diff for Breakthrough candidates
          • F is the F-adjustment figure (F/I) for problems taken at both F and I level
          • I is the I-adjustment figure (I/A) for problems taken at both I and A level.
        • This standardization calculation explains why some diff figures are below 1.0 (which would otherwise be the lowest possible).
      • Problems from Round 2 had their diff increased by a figure based on the difference between the Round 1 figures for the winners (who eventually took Round 2) and the overall average.
        • E.g. if the R2 diff for a problem was 2,
        • and the R1 Advanced winners’ average score was twice the average for all Advanced competitors,
        • then its diff for a typical A-level candidate was 2 x 2 = 4.